Facts indicating that the universe is created
The universe appears to be tailor made for living matter.
Even minor deviations would make life impossible. Here are a few groups of facts showing that.
Gradually, all the following facts will be provided with links to justify the claim.
The [brackets] indicate positions of future links.
Laws of nature
At least ten dimensions span the universe.
Of these, three are spatial dimensions.
Life would have been impossible in all of the following cases:
Life is impossible in a world with two or fewer [spatial dimensions]
Life is impossible in a world with four or more [spatial dimensions]
Life is impossible in a world where photons are not stable
Life is impossible in a world where gravitons are not stable
Life is impossible in a world where mesons are stable
The universe is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics
Life is impossible in a world governed by Newton's laws
Life would have been impossible if the electron were a boson
Constants of nature
Many properties of matter are governed by constants
Very small deviations in the values would have made life impossible
Life would have been impossible had gravitational constant deviated by 1 percent from the actual value
Life would have been impossible if the electron had been ten times as high
Nucleic energy levels
Any of the following circumstances would have made life impossible:
If the energy levels of the carbon(12) nucleus had been 4 percent lower
If the energy levels of the carbon(12) nucleus had been 4 percent higher
If the energy levels of the oxygen(16) nucleus had been 0.6 percent lower
If a free neutron had been [stable)
If the neutron had been unstable even inside nuclei
If the di neutron had been stable
If the di proton had been stable
If the Deuteron had not been stable
If the muon had been stable
There are three typical energy ranges for chemical bonds:
100 - 1000 kJ/mol for covalent bonds och ionic bonds
20 - 30 kJ/mol for hydrogen bonds
5 - 20 kJ/mol for Van der Waals' bonds
If any of the classes had been as strong as any of the other, life would have been impossible
The unique properties of water
There are abnormous quantities of water close to the surface of the Earth
Liquid water is possible at the surface of the earth due to its abnormally high boiling point
Ice has a lower density than liquid water
Life would have been impossible if water were a "normal" substance.
The unique properties of carbon
Carbon is able to form poymers
Polymers of carbon are able to have a huge variety of chemical properties
By incorporating other kinds of atoms into the polymers,
the varieties of chemical properties are able to increase by orders of magnitude
This makes it possible for carbon polymers to be tailormade for all kinds of purposes required in living organisms
No other element is even close to having this ability
If the Earth had been 2 % closer to the Sun, humans would have been impossible
If the Earth had been 6 % farther away from the Sun, humans would have been impossible
The Sun is in a region of the galaxy where the distances between stars is large enough
for life not to be extinguished by super nova explosions or close passages of other stars
The star density in this region of the galaxy is large enough
for supernova remnants being able to form star systems with planets made up by heavy elements
Conclusions so far
The probability for the universe to fulfill all those requirements by chance is far less than one in one million.
In any other context, one would state that with such overwhelming evidence, only one conclusion is possible.
If, for example, someone's fingerprints are found at a crime scene, it is concluded that the person has been there.
Similarly, the only reasonable conclusion that the universe was created,
and that the purpose was to be a suitable environment for humans.
In other words, that there exists a Creator, God.
And also, that God is not a part of the universe.
Actually, just a few of the facts that have been mentioned above, are sufficient.
Taken together, they constitute an overwhelming evidence.
More conclusions will be added later....
Summary of probabilities
Three spatial dimensions out of ten, 12 %
Neutron [within acceptable range], 6.5 %
Energy levels in carbon nucleus, 15 %
Energy levels in oxygen nucleus 50 %
To combine probabilities, they have to be multiplied.
Thus, the four facts alone give
0.12 * 0.065 * 0.15 * 0.5 = 0.000585
This is an upper limit to be the probability that the universe came into existence by random processes,
and without any intention of giving it properties that makes life possible.
By inverting that number, we find that the probability is less than
1 in 1709
that there does not exist a God who has created the universe.
When we are talking about being sure of something, we often say things like: I am sure by 99,9 percent.
The figure above indicates that we are sure to more than 99,9 percent.
What about dependencies?
Normally, the combination of probabilities by multiplication is valid only if the probabilities are independent of each other.
Strictly speaking, the condition is not fulfilled here, yet multiplication of probabilities valid.
As an example, let us look at the stability properties of diproton, dineutron and deuteron.
Primarily those properties depend upon the value of one constant only, the coupling constant of the strong interaction.
So we should be able to find a range in which the life is possible.
On the other han, had it depended upon that constant only, the three particles had been either all stable, or all unstable.
The three particles have different properties. The mass of the proton differs slightly from that of the neutron.
Furthermore, the the value of the electromagnetic coupling constant is important,
as well as the size of the nucleus as compared to that of a proton or a neutron.
This is determined by other constants, essentially by the value of Planck's constant.
Obviously, three constats need have matching values to grant life supporting stability properties of diproton, dineutron and deuteron.
An additional point of view: Nothing grants that values of the constants do exist,
that will give life supporting properties to the three constants.
For life to be possible, the laws of nature have to be able to give suitable stability ranges.
We do not know what laws are possible, but we know that in a universe governed by Newtonian physics, life is impossible.